In theory and under ideal conditions, UHF RFID tags could be read at that range. But it’s not easy and requires quite a bit of power, along with a large directional antenna. The tags are stickers similar to this:
I don’t know how well the would work (or stay) wrapped around an antenna. And read range would be significantly reduced if you are not hitting the tag broadside with your rf field.
I don’t know much about archery, but it would seem any sort of on-board electronics that require a battery would effect the flight characteristics and would have to be inegrated into the design of the arrow from the start for it to be feasible.
How about florescent paint and a black light or UV laser? That would require line of sight though…
Might look into building a very simple AM transmitter beacon that “chirps” every few seconds.
Or maybe just hit your target more often.
If you are looking for them right away… Keep your arrows in a warmer (or cooler depending on the surrounding temps). Then use an IR camera to locate the warm arrows against the background.